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HIV Emerging Trends in Prevention & Treatment

This CE activity was originally published in The Rx Consultant.  If you received credit for it previously, you cannot receive credit for it again.

Four decades after the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported, 38 million people are living with HIV worldwide.Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in battling the disease. Since peaking in 1997, the number of new cases has decreased 40% worldwide and since 2004, AIDS-related deaths have declined more than 56%.In the US, just over 1 million people are living with HIV and new infections declined 11% between 2010 and 2017.

The number of people living with HIV has increased since the late 1990s due to the availability of potent and better tolerated antiretrovirals (ARVs) that prolong life. People in the 50 to 54 year old age group account for the largest percentage of those living with HIV in the US.Individuals with HIV now have a similar life expectancy as the general population.However, complete viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not fully restore health. Deaths due to non-AIDS related complications range from 18.5% in sub-Saharan countries to 53% in high-income countries. These include cardiovascular,kidney, and liver diseases, as well as various types of cancer and neurologic disorders often linked with aging. Metabolic complications including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes can also occur.“Premature aging” of people with HIV is believed to result from persistent viral inflammation rather than toxicity from ARV therapy.


This issue reviews recommended ARVs and focuses on the initial management of HIV in treatment-naïve adults, according to guidelines provided by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). In addition, recommendations for ART in pregnancy are summarized and an update is included on the use of ARVs for PrEP and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), according to guidelines provided by the CDC.



CE Hours


CE Units


Activity Type

  • Knowledge

Target Audience(s)

  • Pharmacists, Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Nurse Specialists, and Registered Nurses
  • Pharmacists
  • Nurse Practitioners


This CE activity was developed by The Rx Consultant, a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

CE activities for Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians:
This continuing education (CE) activity meets the requirements of all state boards of pharmacy for approved continuing education hours.  CE credit is automatically reported to CPE Monitor.
CE activities for Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Nurse Specialists: 
    This continuing education activity meets the requirements of:
        The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) for formally approved continuing education (CE) hours, and CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics.
        The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners Certification Program (AANPCP) for acceptable, accredited CE.
    This is a pharmacotherapeutics/pharmacology CE activity.
  • The ANCC requires all advanced practice nursing certificants (CNSs and NPs) to complete 25 CE hours of pharmacotherapeutics as a portion of the required 75 continuing education hours.
  • Pharmacology CE is recommended by the AANPCP and will be required for Certificants renewing certification starting January 2017.  
  • Most State Boards of Nursing require a minimum number of pharmacy contact hours to renew an advanced practice license.
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education
Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Requirements for CE Credit

To receive CE credit, the participant must read the monograph in its entirety, complete the online post-test and receive a score of 70% or greater, and complete the online evaluation.
Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians -
Be sure your profile has been updated with your NAPB e-profile # and birth date information BEFORE completing the online evaluation, or your credits cannot be reported to CPE Monitor.
Continuing pharmacy education credit is automatically reported to CPE Monitor once the post-test & evaluation are successfully completed.





  • Distinguish between HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis.
  • Compare and contrast the contemporary integrase strand transfer inhibitors, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors.
  • Given a patient profile, design an appropriate treatment regimen for HIV in treatment-na├»ve adults according to the most recent guidelines of the Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Counsel patients on the appropriate use of currently recommended antiretrovirals, monitoring parameters, and the importance of adherence to therapy.


Austin M. Golia

Brief Bio : Austin M. Golia, PharmD is a recent graduate of Palm Beach Atlantic University Gregory School of Pharmacy and a PGY-1 Pharmacy Resident at the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Elias B. Chahine, PharmD, FCCP, FASCP, FFSHP, BCPS, BCIDP
Professor of Pharmacy Practice

Brief Bio : Elias B. Chahine, PharmD, FCCP, FASCP, FFSHP, BCPS,BCIDP is a Professor of Pharmacy Practice at Palm Beach Atlantic University Gregory School of Pharmacy and a Clinical Pharmacy Specialist at Wellington Regional Medical Center. His primary responsibilities include coordinating and teaching the integrated infectious diseases pharmacotherapy course, precepting students and residents, and engaging in scholarship and service. He has authored several articles in the areas of infectious diseases and pharmacy education and has presented extensively at pharmacy meetings.

Activity Number


Release Date: May 22, 2020
Credit Expiration Date: May 22, 2023

CE Hours




The CE Activity developed by The Rx Consultant